This article was previously published November 9, 2020, and has been modernized with new information.

Aside from insulin opposition, 1 vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a primary risk factor for severe COVID-1 9 infection and death. Higher vitamin D status have even been shown to lower your risk of testing positive for the virus in the first place.

Getting the word out about this — especially to the Black community and the elderly in nursing homes — could have a significant impact on future hospitalization and mortality rate from this virus.

If you have a loved one in a nursing home, taking the time to talk to the medical management about vitamin D testing and supplementation could also make a big difference in the general health of all the residents, as vitamin D is something that can strengthen your immune organisation in a matter of a few weeks and has countless health benefits beside lowering your risk of viral illness.

Vast Majority of COVID-1 9 Cases Have Vitamin D Deficiency

According to a Spanish study2, 3,4 published online October 27, 2020, in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology& Metabolism, 82.2% of COVID-1 9 patients tested were found to be deficient in vitamin D, the medical call for which is 25 -hydroxycholecalciferol( 25 OHD ).

The investigates likened the vitamin D the different levels of 216 COVID-1 9 patients and 197 population-based restraints, acquiring that hospitalized COVID-1 9 patients had a higher prevalence of shortage and had lower vitamin D heights overall. As reported by the authors: 5

“In COVID-1 9 cases, planned +- SD 25 OHD ranks were 13.8+ -7.2 ng/ ml, compared against 20.9 +- 7.4 ng/ ml in controls. 25 OHD appraises were lower in guys than in women. Vitamin D paucity was is located within 82.2% of COVID-1 9 cases and 47.2% of population-based controls.

25OHD inversely correlate to serum ferritin and D-dimer positions. Vitamin D deficient COVID-1 9 patients had a greater prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, caused serum ferritin and troponin levels, as well as a longer length of hospital keep than those with serum 25 OHD ranks >= 20 ng/ ml.”

While this particular study failed to find a correlation between vitamin D grades and cancer seriousnes, other studies have shown patients with higher levels do tend to have milder disease. In fact, one such study6, 7 spot your risk of developing a severe case of, and dying from, COVID-1 9 virtually disappears once your vitamin D level gets above 30 ng/ mL( 75 nmol/ L ).

Vitamin D’s Impact on COVID-1 9

Back in June 2020, I launched an information campaign about vitamin D that included the release of a downloadable technical report. Their respective reports, as well as a two-minute COVID risk quiz is available on

October 31, 2020, my inspect paper8 “Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-1 9 and Its Severity, ” co-written with William Grant, Ph.D ., and Dr. Carol Wagner, both of whom are part of the GrassrootsHealth expert vitamin D board, was also published in the peer-reviewed journal Nutrients. You can read the paper for free on the journal’s website.

As noted in that paper, dark skin color, increased age, preexisting chronic conditions and vitamin D shortfall are all features of severe COVID disease and, of these, vitamin D deficiency is the only factor that is modifiable. As such, it would be foolish to ignore, especially since vitamin D augments are readily available and low cost.

Vitamin D aimed at reducing the health risks of COVID-1 9 and other respiratory infections via several different mechanisms, including but not limited to, all of which are discussed in greater detail in our article: 9

Reducing the survival and replication of viruses1 0

Reducing inflammatory cytokine production

Maintaining endothelial integrity( Endothelial dysfunction contributes to vascular inflammation and impaired blood clotting, two trademarks of severe COVID-1 9)

Increasing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2( ACE2) accumulations. As explained in our newspaper:

“Angiotensin II is a natural peptide hormone best known for increasing blood pressure through encouraging aldosterone. ACE2 commonly eats angiotensin I, thereby lowering its concentrations. However, SARS-CoV-2 illnes downregulates ACE2, have contributed to unwarranted growth of angiotensin II.

Cell cultures of human alveolar type II cadres with vitamin D have shown that the SARS-CoV-2 virus interacts with the ACE2 receptor expressed on the surface of lung epithelial cells. Once the virus secures to the ACE2 receptor, it reduces its activity and, in turn, promotes ACE1 act, modelling more angiotensin II, which increases the severity of COVID-1 9. “

Vitamin D too improves your overall immune run by modulating your innate and adaptive immune responses, abbreviates respiratory distress1 1 and improves overall lung affair, and helps develop surfactants in your lungs that be used to help fluid clearance. 12

It lowers the health risks of comorbidities associated with poor COVID-1 9 prognosis, including obesity, 13 Type 2 diabetes, 14 high-pitched blood pressure1 5 and coronary thrombosis. 16 All of these factors make it an important component of COVID-1 9 prevention and treatment.

Criteria for Causality Satisfied

As of September 27, 2020, the data from 14 observational studies — are outlined in table 1 of our paper1 7 — have shown that vitamin D blood heights are inversely related with the incidence and/ or severity of COVID-1 9, and the evidence currently available generally slakes Hill’s criteria for causality in a biological system, which include: 18

Strength of association

Consistency of evidence


Biological gradient

Plausibility( e.g ., mechanisms)

Coherence( although it still needs to be verified experimentally)

In our article, 19 we recollect various features of COVID-1 9 that are indicative of vitamin D flaw. For starters, SARS-CoV-2 emerged in the winter in the northern hemisphere, and as we moved into summer, positive evaluations, hospitalizations and mortality rate came. So, generally, COVID-1 9 prevalence has been inversely correlated with solar UVB quantities and vitamin D production.

Secondly, beings with darker scalp have higher COVID-1 9 bag and death rates than Caucasians. Vitamin D is produced in your surface in response to sun exposure, but the darker your bark, the more sun exposure you need in order to maintain an optimal vitamin D level.

While a light-skinned individual may need only 10 to 15 minutes per day, person or persons with very dark skin may need upward of 1.5 hours. As a make, vitamin D deficiency tends to be far higher among Blacks and dark-skinned Hispanics.

SARS-CoV-2 positivity is strongly and inversely associated with circulating 25( OH) D status, a relationship that persists across leeways, scoots/ ethnicities, both fornications, and age wanders.~ PLOS ONE September 17, 2020

Thirdly, one of the lethal trademarks of COVID-1 9 is the cytokine storm that can develop in severe cases, which certifies as hyperinflammation and material damage. Vitamin D is known to regulate inflammatory cytokine make, thereby lowering this risk. Lastly, vitamin D is an important regulator of your immune system, and dysregulation of the immune structure is a hallmark of severe COVID-1 9.

Results of the Largest Study to Date

The largest observational study2 0 to date was published in the publication PLOS ONE, September 17, 2020. It looked at data for 191,779 American cases with a mean age of 50 who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 between March and June 2020 and had had their vitamin D researched sometime in the preceding 12 months. It knew 😛 TAGEND

12.5% of patients who had a vitamin D tier below 20 ng/ ml( scarcity) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2

8.1% of those who had a vitamin D rank between 30 and 34 ng/ ml( sufficiency) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2

Only 5.9% of those who had an optimal vitamin D level of 55 ng/ ml or higher tested positive for SARS-CoV-2

According to the authors: 21

“SARS-CoV-2 positivity is strongly and inversely associated with circulating 25( OH) D degrees, such relationships that persists across freedoms, races/ ethnicities, both sexualities, and senility wanders. Our receives cater impetus to explore the role played by vitamin D supplementation in reducing the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-1 9 disease.”

This inverse relationship between vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 infection rates may be due to the fact that vitamin D shortens existence and replication of the virus by activating immune cadres to produce the antimicrobial and antiviral peptides cathelicidin and defensins, and rising accumulations of free ACE2, which impedes the virus from penetrating cells via the ACE2 receptor. 22

Higher Vitamin D Lowers Risks Associated With COVID-1 9

The argument for vitamin D optimization is strengthened by the fact that higher levels not only reduce your risk of testing positive for the virus but likewise cut the hazards of severe illness, the need for hospitalization and mechanical breathing, the length of hospitalization, and demise. Examples of this include the following studies, which prove vitamin D:

* Lowers infection rates — In the PLOS ONE study2 3 above, people with a vitamin D grade of at least 55 ng/ mL( 138 nmol/ L) had a 47% lower SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate compared to those with a rank below 20 ng/ mL( 50 nmol/ L ). Even after readjustment for gender, age, ethnicity and freedom, the risk of having a positive experiment reaction was 43% lower from among the persons with a vitamin D level of 55 ng/ mL compared to those with a grade of 20 ng/ mL.

This was also confirmed in an Israeli population-based study2 4,25 issued in july 2020. Here, those with a vitamin D rank above 30 ng/ mL( 75 nmol/ L) had a 59% lower threat of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared to those with a vitamin D statu between 20 ng/ mL and 29 ng/ mL( 50 to 74 nmol/ L ), and a 58% lower jeopardy compared to those with a vitamin D rank below 20 ng/ mL( 50 nmol/ L ).

* Lowers hospitalization proportions — The Israeli analysis2 6 above also found that among individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, those who had a vitamin D rank below 30 ng/ mL had a 1.95 occasions( crude odds ratio) to 2.09 days( quirkies ratio after change for demographics and psychiatric and somatic agitations) higher risk of being hospitalized for COVID-1 9.

In other messages, having a vitamin D level below 30 ng/ mL about doubled the risk of being hospitalized with COVID-1 9.

* Lowers need for intensive attend — Vitamin D, when administered to hospitalized patients, can also lower their risk of needing intense charge. This was demonstrated by Spanish researchers in a small randomized clinical study2 7,28, 29,30 published online August 29, 2020.

Hospitalized COVID-1 9 patients applied supplemental calcifediol( a vitamin D3 analog) in addition to standard of care — which included the use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin — had significantly lower intensive care unit admissions.

Patients in the vitamin D limb received 532 micrograms of calcifediol on the day of admission( equivalent to that given to 106,400 IUs of vitamin D31) be accompanied by 266 mcg on Daylights 3 and 7( equivalent to 53,200 IUs3 2 ). After that, they received 266 mcg once a week until removal, ICU admission or death.

Of those receiving calcifediol, only 2% necessary ICU admission, compared against 50% of those who did not get calcifediol. None of those uttered vitamin D supplementation died, compared against 7.6% of those working in the standard maintenance group.

* Reduces harshnes of COVID-1 9 — An August 2020 study3 3,34 published in the gazette Nutrients received patients who had a vitamin D grade below 12 ng/ mL( 30 nmol/ L) had a 6.12 times higher risk of severe illnes requiring invasive mechanical ventilation.

Studies have also demonstrated vitamin D deficiency is a common factor among hospitalized cases diagnosed with COVID-1 9 pertained respiratory los. One such study3 5 observe 81% of individual patients with acute respiratory los due to COVID-1 9 had vitamin D ranks below 30 ng/ ml( 75 nmol/ L ); 24% had severe vitamin D flaw (<= 10 ng/ ml or <= 25 nmol/ L ).

* Reduces death — The Nutrients study3 6,37 above too attained having a vitamin D grade below 12 ng/ mL( 30 nmol/ L) fostered the risk of death by 14.7 epoches, compared to having a vitamin D position above 12 ng/ mL.

Similarly, researchers in Indonesia found3 8 those with a vitamin D elevation between 21 ng/ mL( 50 nmol/ L) and 29 ng/ mL( 75 nmol/ L) had a 12.55 times higher risk of fatality than those with a statu above 30 ng/ mL( 75 nmol/ L ), and having a level below 20 ng/ mL( 50 nmol/ L) is connected with a 19.12 times higher risk of death.

In an Iranian study, 39,40 among COVID-1 9 cases over persons under the age of 40 who had vitamin D heights below 30 ng/ mL( 75 nmol/ L ), 20% died, compared to 9.7% of those with positions at or above 30 ng/ mL. Among those with a vitamin D level of at least 40 ng/ mL( 100 nmol/ L ), simply 6.3% died.

The Role of Magnesium and Vitamin K2

While regular sunlight showing is the ideal way to optimize your vitamin D statu, this can be nearly impossible during the winter. For the above reasons, an oral vitamin D3 supplement is recommended for most people. However, when complementing you too need to be mindful of other nutrients that have synergistic effects.

One of them is magnesium, which is required for the conversion of vitamin D into its active use. Without sufficient quantities of magnesium, your form cannot properly utilize the vitamin D you’re making. 41,42, 43,44

According to a technical review4 5,46 published in 2018, as countless as 50% of Americans taking vitamin D augments may not get substantial benefit as the vitamin D simply goes stored in its inactive organize, and the above reasons for this is because they have insufficient magnesium elevations. Research4 7 published in 2013 also highlighted this issue, concluding that higher magnesium uptake helps reduce your risk of vitamin D shortage by activate more of it.

Another cofactor is vitamin K2, as it helps prevent complications are connected with unwarranted calcification in your arteries. In fact, relative vitamin K2 deficiency is typically what renders symptoms of “vitamin D toxicity.”

Research by GrassrootsHealth, based on data from roughly 3,000 types, exposes you need 244% more oral vitamin D if you’re not too taking magnesium and vitamin K2. 48 What this represents in practical terms is that if you take all three augments in combination, you need far less oral vitamin D in order to achieve a healthful vitamin D level.

Take-Home Message

If you live in the northern hemisphere, which is currently heading toward winter , now is the time to check your vitamin D statu and start taking action to raise it if you’re below 40 ng/ mL( 100 nmol/ L ). Experts recommend a vitamin D position between 40 and 60 ng/ mL( 100 to 150 nmol/ L ).

An easy and cost-effective way of measuring your vitamin D level is to order GrassrootsHealth’s vitamin D testing package. Too, if you haven’t once seen delight do so now so you can take your free COVID risk test and too grab a free PDF copy with far better graphics than I was able to lay in my recently published Nutrients paper.

Once you know your current vitamin D grade, use the GrassrootsHealth vitamin D calculator4 9 to determine how much vitamin D you might need to reach your target stage. Again, to optimize vitamin D absorption and utilization, be sure to take your vitamin D with vitamin K2 and magnesium.

Lastly, remember to retest in three to four months to make sure you’ve reached your target elevation. If “youve had”, then you know you’re taking the correct dosage. If you’re still low-grade( or have reached a level above 80 ng/ mL ), you’ll need to adjust your dosage accordingly and retest again in another three to four months.

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