I’ve written countless sections reviewing a wide variety of regimen displayed or hypothesized to have a positive impact on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-1 9 cancer advancement. Now, we can add nitric oxide( NO) to the list — not to be confused with nitrous oxide( N2O, a sedative often referred to as laughing gas ). According to Ake Lundkvist, a professor at Uppsala University who led the study1 in question: 2

“To our insight, nitric oxide is the only element evidence so far to have a direct effect on SARS-CoV-2. Until we get a vaccine “whos working”, our hope is that inhalation of NO might be an effective form of therapy. The dosage and occasioning of starting management probably frisk an important part in the outcome, and now is therefore necessary to explored as soon as possible.”

What Is Nitric Oxide?

Nitric oxide( NO) is a soluble gas continually is derived from the amino acid L-arginine inside your cells. While NO is a free radical, it’s too an important biological signaling molecule that supports regular endothelial affair and protects your mitochondria — the little “power stations” in your cadres that produce the majority of members of your body’s energy in the form of ATP.

It’s stored in the lining of your endothelium( blood vessels ), and can be triggered either through exert or dietary represents. NO is a potent vasodilator, curing loosen and increase the diameter of your blood vessels.

NO has an antiviral outcome against SARS-CoV-2 … Furthermore, inhaled NO improved arterial oxygenation in hypoxemic cases by redistributing blood flood in the lung to better ventilated parts, and counterbalanced blood clotting, both impacts being of importance for COVID-1 9 cases.~ Redox Biology 2020

Healthy blood flow in turn allows for efficient oxygenation of tissues and parts, and aids in the removal of waste and carbon dioxide. Importantly, NO imbues into areas that are hypoxic, gist in need of oxygen, and both your heart and brain3, 4 are heavy oxygen consumers. NO also 😛 TAGEND

Improves your immune office, meeting your body better equipped to fight off foreign pathogens

Has powerful antibacterial possible

Protects your mitochondrial health

Helps maintain physiological homeostasis — For illustration, in your intestine, NO regulates mucosal blood move, intestinal motility and the thickness of mucus

Plays an important role in the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species, which can have a significant impact on metabolic pathways5

Helps suppress inflammation

Promotes angiogenesis, the process of developing brand-new, healthy blood vessels6

Helps improve your physical fitness — For sample, fresh beets have been shown to boost stamina during exercising by as much as 16% as a result of the increasing number of NO production7

Improves brain neuroplasticity by improving oxygenation of the somatomotor cortex, a mentality country that is often affected in the early stages of dementia8, 9

Helps reverse metabolic syndrome1 0 and has antidiabetic effects1 1,12

NO Effectively Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Replication

As mentioned, NO is known to have broad-spectrum antimicrobial effects, and Swedish researchers have now demonstrated that NO effectively inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro by targeting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. The study1 3 in question was published in the October 2020 issue of Redox Biology. As have been explained under various sections of the working paper: 14

“Nitric oxide( NO) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial and a potent vasodilator that has proved to be effective in thin SARS-CoV replication and hypoxia in patients with severe acute respiratory condition …

NO has been demonstrated as an efficient antiviral against SARS-CoV in vitro and in vivo by inhalation in very low absorptions in a small clinical test.

Furthermore, breath NO improved arterial oxygenation in hypoxemic patients by redistributing blood spring in the lung to better ventilated neighborhoods, and negated blood clotting, both outcomes being of importance for COVID-1 9 patients.

The persona of NO-inhalation in the prevention and treatment of COVID-1 9 has been proposed, but no clinical data has yet been reported. In the present study the antiviral effect of NO on SARS-CoV-2 infected cells was tested under vitro …

The NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine( SNAP) had a dose dependent inhibitory outcome on SARS-CoV-2 replication … SNAP( NO donor ), but not NAP( NO-lacking version of SNAP) pictured a dosage relative reduction of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA copy quantities, which proves that NO has an antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2 and probably in the same form as has already been described for SARS-CoV and other viruses …

Although the viral replication was not absolutely rescinded( at 200 mM and 400 mM ), SNAP retarded or altogether frustrated the development of viral cytopathic result in analyse cells, and the detected protective impact related with high levels of limit of the viral replication.”

The image below likens and distinguishes the cytopathic results over era( 24 -hour interludes) between cadres treated with SNAP( a NO donor) at 200 mM and 400 mM, and untreated restraints. The cells are overstated 100 times.

cytopathic effects over time

SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Is an Attractive Drug Candidate

The SARS-CoV-2 prime protease is a key enzyme in the virus’ life cycle, 15 which obliges it an alluring target for dose improvement. 16 As explained in one Science paper, 17 the SARS-CoV-2 main protease enzyme “cuts the polyproteins decoded from viral RNA to furnish functional viral proteins.”

By targeting this enzyme, investigates believe you can effectively combat SARS-CoV-2, and that is precisely what NO does. According to the Swedish researchers: 18

“Based on this study and previous studies on SARS-CoV in vitro, and in a small clinical contest, we conclude that NO may be applied for clinical use in the medicine of COVID-1 9 and other human coronavirus infections.”

How to Increase NO Production Naturally

While the Swedish investigates advocate exerting NO inhalation rehabilitation — which is already exploited for status such as hypoxic respiratory flop in adults1 9 and respiratory failure in neonates2 0 — you could also lift your resilience against the virus by implementing life-style strategies that addition your natural NO production.

For clarity, these strategies would not be of immediate help if you come down with a SARS-CoV-2 illnes. Very, by the rise in your body’s production of NO on a regular basis, the virus may be less likely to gain a foothold if you’re to be subject to it. That said, three strategies that will increase NO production in your person include 😛 TAGEND

Blood flow restriction training( BFR) 21

Getting sensible daylight showing on large portions of your organization, as NO is released into your bloodstream when sunlight thumps your skin2 2,23

Eating nitrate-rich plant foods2 4,25, 26 such as arugula and red beets. NO production can be further magnified by compound these nutrients with probiotics2 7

BFR Boosts Vascular Function by Increasing NO

To give you some more details about these strategies, BFR has been shown to improve your vascular part, and one of the ways by which it does this is by increasing NO production. As explained in a 2012 study be made available in the International Journal of Vascular Medicine: 28

“ … after several minutes of arterial cuff occlusion at proximal or distal segment in any vein, for example, brachial and popliteal artery, immediate cuff deflation can lead to increase shear stress persuaded by reactive hyperemia and activate endothelial nitric oxide( NO) synthase( eNOS ).

This activation leads to a shear-stress-mediated augmented NO production in endothelial cadres … NO bioavailability in the endothelial cadre … is a key element and predictor in protecting against cardiovascular disease.”

The local muscle hypoxia brought on by BFR exercise also significantly increases vascular endothelial growing factor( VEGF ), which act like “fertilizer” for your blood vessels. The medical call for this development of new blood vessels is angiogenesis. Angiogenesis, in turn, deepens NO bioavailability.

The following diagram shows the vascular changes that occur in response to BFR. To learn more about BFR, including how to perform it properly, accompany “What You Need to Know About Blood Flow Restriction Training.”

vascular changes that occur in response to BFR

Whole Body UVA Irradiation Triggers NO Release

Next up: Sun exposure. It doesn’t get any easier than this, certainly. All you need to do is expose as much skin as possible to radiant sunlight. As ever, you’ll want to make sure you don’t stay out too long. Sunburn is counterproductive as it will exclusively harm your bark. Once your skin turns the lightest subtlety of pink, move into the shade or put one over clothing and a hat.

Ultraviolet A( UVA) and the near-infrared light spectrum both addition NO, so you’re get that benefit from both ends of the light-footed range. As explained in a 2009 paper2 9 in the publication Circulation Research, when you expose your person to sunlight, photolabile NO derivates such as nitrite and S-nitroso thiols decompose and organize vasoactive NO.( Photolabile implies the complexes are altered or experience compound changes in response to glowing ).

Eat a Nitrate-Rich Diet

Lastly, the dietary ingredient. Dietary nitrates are changing to nitrites by oral bacteria during munching. Once the nitrites are withdrawn and come into contact with stomach acid, they get converted into NO. You knows where to find more in-depth details about this transition in “Top 9 Grounds to Optimize Your NO Production.” Nitrate-rich nutrients that can boost your NO level include: 30,31, 32


Red beets/ fermented beets



Butter leaf lettuce

Spring parks like mesclun mix


Oak foliage lettuce

Swiss chard

As mentioned, taking a probiotic can optimize the NO yield when feeing nitrate-rich menus. The rationalization for this is because gut bacteria are involved in the first step of the NO metabolism chain. Probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus reduce nitrate to nitrite, the latter of which is becoming a substrate for NO. So, by adding probiotics, you increase the NO substrate, which allows for higher levels of NO to be generated.

Aside from the many benefits previously scheduled, NO has also been shown to improve muscle constrictions in your diaphragm, thereby improving breathing. This, beside its antiviral consequences, can have a guide benefit for COVID-1 9.

For the study, 33 investigates split old-fashioned mouse into two groups.( For invoke, the mouse used in the study were 24 months old, which is equivalent to about 70 years of age in humans .) One group was granted drinking water that contained sodium nitrate daily for 14 eras. The other radical was given grassland ocean.

After the study period, they set the isometric coerce and pinnacle superpower of the diaphragm muscles in the mouse and found that both significantly increased in the nitrate group. This increase in force and supremacy translated to improved reduction of the diaphragm muscle, which can then improve lung office and breathing.

The increased superpower in the diaphragm could also assistance older people clear their lungs more effectively, which may reducing the risks of development for illness. Your body’s ability to produce NO slumps with senility, so it’s important to take steps to increase your NO production as you get older. Respiratory muscle function likewise lessens with age, is encouraging breathing perturbs, impaired airway permission and a decreased quality of life.

Since nitrates can improve muscle function of the diaphragm, it may help improve the outlook for older populations with respiratory infections like COVID-1 9. Dietary nitrates also improve oxygen uptake by dilating the blood vessels and allowing more oxygen to be delivered to muscles, like the diaphragm, and other cells. 34

How Molecular Hydrogen Impacts NO Production

In conclusion, I’d like to address the detrimental side of NO, and how this plays into COVID-1 9. As explained by Tyler W. LeBaron in a recent video castigate featured in “How Molecular Hydrogen Can Help Your Immune System, ” most of the devastation wrought by SARS-CoV-2 is through reactive oxygen genus( ROS) and systemic inflammation.

And, as mentioned earlier, NO is both a free progressive and a signaling molecule. As such, we are to be able to have either positive or negative effects, depending on its levels and what else is going on.

ROS are molecules that movement oxidative impair. However, they’re not all bad all the time. Neutrophils that raise ROS also display NO and superoxide. Superoxide improves kill pathogens, but you likewise don’t want too much of it, so it needs to be regulated. The same knows for NO.

While NO can restrain viral replication and boost your immune plan, you don’t want too much, because as levels of superoxide and NO rise, they blend and anatomy peroxynitrites, which are extremely devastation. Peroxynitrites in turn form hydroxyl revolutionaries, the most cytotoxic ROS.

Normally, when superoxide has done its occupation, it’s proselytized by superoxide dismutase into hydrogen peroxide, which in turn is converted into water and oxygen. This process are controlled by a transcription factor announced Nrf2/ keap1.

When this transcription part is activated, it provokes your body’s natural antioxidants such as glutathione and catalase. Nrf2 — which participates in period 2 detoxification — adjusts more than 200 protective proteins and enzymes. The trouble is that when ROS is overabundant and out of control, the Nrf2 structure is depleted and can no longer regulate the inflammatory process.

Molecular hydrogen( H2 gas) has the ability to activate the Nrf2/ keap1 pathway, thereby replenishing your endogenous antioxidants. In so doing, H2 aids regulate and maintain homeostasis in the whole organisation, avoiding the infection from going out of control and inducing cadre death.

H2 can also lower excess NO and superoxide production by downregulating NOX and NOS enzymes. In a situation such as COVID-1 9, this would be good, as when these two molecules are excessively hoisted they compound to generate the pernicious peroxynitrite molecule.

Considering very high levels of NO appears to part of the COVID-1 9 infection process in the later stages, it seems NO inhalation care are likely to be best suited in the early stages of infection , not the more advanced stages when inflammation is running mad.

As noted by the Front-Line COVID-1 9 Critical Care( FLCCC) Alliance, 35,36 pinnacle viral replication takes region at the earliest signs of indications, which include cold/ flu-like symptoms, loss of taste and reeked, myalgia( muscle sting) and general discomfort.

At this time, the focus should be on antiviral therapies — which is what NO inhalation therapy, in this case, could be designated as. As manifestations deteriorate, viral replication actually diminishes automatically, establishing lane to immune dysregulation, so at this phase, NO might cause more problems than it solves.

Nebulized Hydrogen Peroxide — A Highly Effective Home Remedy

While unrelated to NO, I repute one of the most effective treatment alternatives available is nebulized hydrogen peroxide. This is a home remedy I recommend everyone become familiar with, as in many cases it can improve evidences within mere hours. It is particularly effective in those who are in the later stagecoaches of the illness.

Dr. David Brownstein, who has successfully gave over 100 COVID-1 9 cases with nebulized hydrogen peroxide, produced a suit paper3 7 about this medicine in the July 2020 issue of Science, Public Health Policy and The Law. He too discusses its benefits in a recent interview I did with him.

In my April 2020 section, “Could Hydrogen Peroxide Treat Coronavirus ?” I discussed some of the basic science of how hydrogen peroxide creations, as well as some of such studies assessing its therapeutic potential. The most relevant study3 8 was published in March 2020 in the Journal of Hospital Infection. They studied 0.5% hydrogen peroxide, and noticed it killed human coronaviruses, includes the coronaviruses responsible for SARS and MERS.

Nebulized hydrogen peroxide is extremely safe. Brownstein has exerted it for 25 years with no misery outcomes being located. It’s also incredibly inexpensive, and you can administer it at home, without a prescription. In my position, “its one of” the ultimate best rehabilitations for viral infections like SARS-CoV-2 or even worse respiratory viruses that will likely be unleashed in the future.

I strongly recommend buying a desktop nebulizer. It required to cause a very fine mist, and desktop versions are stronger than handheld artillery controlled representations. The one I use is the Pari Trek S Compressor Aerosol System with a face mask,( sold separately) not with the supplied speak piece.

It is important to acquire the equipment and peroxide BEFORE you needed most, as the sooner you treat the infection the better your results will be, although the testimonials are unbelievably impressive even in late stage illness. It is not necessary to treat yourself preventively, but only if you are sick or exposed to someone who is.

While I’ve been using a 0.1% dilution, Brownstein uses an even lower concentration of really 0.04%. Neither Brownstein nor I recommend utilizing business 3% hydrogen peroxide found in most grocery stores, as it has potentially poisonous substance stabilizers in it. For optimal helps, use food-grade peroxide and dilute it appropriately, exploiting saline.

hydrogen peroxide dilution chart

To dilute 35% food-grade peroxide into a 0.04% answer, first diluted it down to 3% by mixing 1 percentage peroxide with 10 areas sterile water, then make 3 cubic centimeters( CCs) of that 3% dilution and contributed it to a 250 CC pouch of normal saline. This raises it down to a. 04% hydrogen peroxide accumulation. In the video above, I go over the basics of how to do nebulized peroxide.

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